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Rare partial octosomy and hexasomy of 15q11-q13 associated with intellectual impairment and development delay: report of two cases and review of literature.

Mol Cytogenet. 2018;11:15

Authors: Li H, Du J, Li W, Cheng D, He W, Yi D, Xiong B, Yuan S, Tu C, Meng L, Luo A, Lin G, Lu G, Tan YQ

Background: Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs) are common structurally abnormal chromosomes that occur in 0.288% of cases of mental retardation. Isodicentric 15 (idic(15)) is common in sSMCs and usually leads to a rare chromosome disorder with distinctive clinical phenotypes, including early central hypotonia, developmental delay, epilepsy, and autistic behavior. It was previously shown that the partial tetrasomy 15q and partial hexasomy 15q syndromes are usually caused by one and two extra idic(15), respectively. Karyotypes containing a mosaic partial octosomy 15q resulting from three extra idic(15) have rarely been reported.
Case presentation: Two patients with profound intellectual impairment, development delay and hyperpigmentation were recruited for this study. The phenotype was relatively more severe in patient 1 than in patient 2. Conventional cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood obtained from patients 1 and 2 revealed rare mosaic karyotypes containing sSMCs, i.e., mos 49,XX,+mar × 3[83]/48,XX,+mar × 2[7]/46,XX[10] and mos 48,XX,+mar × 2[72]/47,XX,+mar[28], respectively. The results of analyses of copy number variation (CNV) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, showed that the sSMCs were found to be idic(15) involving the Prader-Willi/Angelman Syndrome Critical Region (PWACR) genes and the P gene, with duplication sizes of 6.3 Mb and 9.7 Mb, respectively. DNA fingerprinting analysis of patient 1 showed a maternal origin for the idic(15). Both patients had mosaic idic(15) karyotypes: patient 1 had cells with a 15q partial octosomy (83%), and patient 2 had cells with a 15q partial hexasomy (72%).
Conclusions: We detected two rare mosaic idic(15) karyotypes that were associated with congenital abnormalities, including a rare mosaic octosomy of 15q11-q13. Our cases further validate the notion that the phenotypic severity is correlated with the level of mosaicism and the dosage effect of related genes in the proximal 15q.

PMID: 29441129 [PubMed]

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