Associations between urinary cotinine and symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.
Environ Res. 2018 Jun 26;166:481-486
Authors: Kim KM, Lim MH, Kwon HJ, Yoo SJ, Kim EJ, Kim JW, Ha M, Paik KC
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated associations between urinary cotinine levels as a biomarker of secondhand smoke exposure and symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
METHODS: A total of 520 child participants (200 with ADHD, 67 with ASD, and 253 normal control subjects) were assessed using the Korean version of the ADHD rating scale (K-ARS), Autism spectrum screening questionnaire (ASSQ), and Behavioral Assessment System for Children, second edition (BASC-2). The Korean version of the computer-based continuous performance test was used to assess cognitive function. Urinary cotinine was evaluated as a biomarker of secondhand smoke exposure.
RESULTS: Urinary cotinine levels were significantly and positively associated with K-ARS score (B = 4.00, p < 0.001), ASSQ score (B = 1.71, p = 0.030), the behavioral problem subscales of the BASC-2 (B = 1.68-3.52, p < 0.001-0.045), and omission and commission errors in the continuous performance test (B = 6.21-8.42, p < 0.001-0.019). Urinary cotinine levels were also associated with the increased odds ratio of ADHD (OR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.05-2.30, p = 0.028) and ASD (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.12-3.21, p = 0.018).
CONCLUSION: Urinary cotinine levels were associated with lower behavioral adaptation and cognitive function and increased odds ratios of ADHD and ASD, indicating a negative effect of secondhand smoke exposure on the symptomatic manifestation of ADHD and ASD.
PMID: 29957501 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]