Neuropsychiatric Aspects in Men with Klinefelter Syndrome.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2018 Jul 03;:
Authors: Giagulli VA, Capone B, Castellana M, Salzano C, Fisher A, de Angelis C, Pivonello R, Colao A, Pasquali D, Maggi M, Triggiani V, Klinefelter ItaliaN Group (KING)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosome aneuploidy (47,XXY) and cause of male hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. It is characterized by an extreme clinical heterogeneity in presentation, including infertility, hypogonadism, language delay, metabolic comorbidities, and neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders. Since testosterone is known to have organizational, neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on brain, the condition of primary hypogonadism could play a role. Moreover, given that KS subjects have an additional X, genes on the extra-chromosome could also exert a significant impact. The aim of this narrative review is to analyze the available literature on the relationship between KS and neuropsychiatric disorders.
METHODS: To extent to the best of published literature on the topic, it was identified the appropriate keywords and MeSH terms and searched them in Pubmed. Finally, references of original articles and reviews were examined.
RESULTS: Both morphological and functional studies focusing on the brain showed that there were important differences in brain structure of KS subjects. Different psychiatric disorders such as Schizophrenia, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, anxiety, were frequently reported in KS patients according to a broad spectrum of phenotypes. T supplentation (TRT) was not able to improve the psychotic disorders in KS men with or without overt hypogonadism.
CONCLUSION: Although the risk of psychosis, depression and autism is increased in subjects with KS, no definitive evidence has been found in studies aiming at identify the relationship between aneuploidy, T deficit and the risk of psychiatric and cognitive disorders in subjects affected by KS.
PMID: 29972105 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]