0 comments on “Oral microbiome activity in children with autism spectrum disorder.”

Oral microbiome activity in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Oral microbiome activity in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res. 2018 Aug 14;:

Authors: Hicks SD, Uhlig R, Afshari P, Williams J, Chroneos M, Tierney-Aves C, Wagner K, Middleton FA

Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with several oropharyngeal abnormalities, including buccal sensory sensitivity, taste and texture aversions, speech apraxia, and salivary transcriptome alterations. Furthermore, the oropharynx represents the sole entry point to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GI disturbances and alterations in the GI microbiome are established features of ASD, and may impact behavior through the “microbial-gut-brain axis.” Most studies of the ASD microbiome have used fecal samples. Here, we identified changes in the salivary microbiome of children aged 2-6 years across three developmental profiles: ASD (n = 180), nonautistic developmental delay (DD; n = 60), and typically developing (TD; n = 106) children. After RNA extraction and shotgun sequencing, actively transcribing taxa were quantified and tested for differences between groups and within ASD endophenotypes. A total of 12 taxa were altered between the developmental groups and 28 taxa were identified that distinguished ASD patients with and without GI disturbance, providing further evidence for the role of the gut-brain axis in ASD. Group classification accuracy was visualized with receiver operating characteristic curves and validated using a 50/50 hold-out procedure. Five microbial ratios distinguished ASD from TD participants (79.5% accuracy), three distinguished ASD from DD (76.5%), and three distinguished ASD children with/without GI disturbance (85.7%). Taxonomic pathways were assessed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes microbial database and compared with one-way analysis of variance, revealing significant differences within energy metabolism and lysine degradation. Together, these results indicate that GI microbiome disruption in ASD extends to the oropharynx, and suggests oral microbiome profiling as a potential tool to evaluate ASD status.
LAY SUMMARY: Previous research suggests that the bacteria living in the human gut may influence autistic behavior. This study examined genetic activity of microbes living in the mouth of over 300 children. The microbes with differences in children with autism were involved in energy processing and showed potential for identifying autism status.

PMID: 30107083 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein deficiency models synaptic and developmental phenotypes of autism-like syndrome.”

Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein deficiency models synaptic and developmental phenotypes of autism-like syndrome.

Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein deficiency models synaptic and developmental phenotypes of autism-like syndrome.

J Clin Invest. 2018 Aug 14;:

Authors: Hacohen-Kleiman G, Sragovich S, Karmon G, Gao AYL, Grigg I, Pasmanik-Chor M, Le A, Korenková V, McKinney RA, Gozes I

Abstract
Previous findings showed that in mice, complete knockout of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) abolishes brain formation, while haploinsufficiency (Adnp+/-) causes cognitive impairments. We hypothesized that mutations in ADNP lead to a developmental/autistic syndrome in children. Indeed, recent phenotypic characterization of children harboring ADNP mutations (ADNP syndrome children) revealed global developmental delays and intellectual disabilities, including speech and motor dysfunctions. Mechanistically, ADNP includes a SIP motif embedded in the ADNP-derived snippet, drug candidate NAP (NAPVSIPQ also known as CP201), which binds to microtubule end binding protein 3, essential for dendritic spine formation. Here, we established a unique neuronal membrane tagged green fluorescent protein expressing Adnp+/- mouse line allowing in vivo synaptic pathology quantification. We discovered that Adnp deficiency reduced dendritic spine density and altered synaptic gene expression, both of which were partly ameliorated by NAP treatment. Adnp+/- mice further exhibited global developmental delays, vocalization impediments, gait/motor dysfunctions and social/object memory impairments, all partially reversed by daily NAP administration (systemic/nasal). In conclusion, we now connected ADNP-related synaptic pathology to developmental/behavioral outcomes, establishing NAP in vivo target engagement and identifying potential biomarkers. Together, these studies pave the path toward clinical development of NAP (CP201) in the ADNP syndrome.

PMID: 30106381 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Mobile technology use and skills among individuals with fragile X syndrome: implications for healthcare decision making.”

Mobile technology use and skills among individuals with fragile X syndrome: implications for healthcare decision making.

Related Articles

Mobile technology use and skills among individuals with fragile X syndrome: implications for healthcare decision making.

J Intellect Disabil Res. 2018 Aug 13;:

Authors: Raspa M, Fitzgerald T, Furberg RD, Wylie A, Moultrie R, DeRamus M, Wheeler AC, McCormack L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and their families use technology in daily life and what skills individuals with FXS can perform when using mobile technologies.
METHODS: Using a mixed-methods design, including an online survey of parents (n = 198) and a skills assessment of individuals with FXS (n = 6), we examined the experiences and abilities of individuals with FXS for engaging with mobile technology.
RESULTS: Parents reported that individuals with FXS often used technology in their daily lives, with variations based on age of child, sex, autism status, depression, and overall ability. Parents frequently sought and shared FXS-related information online. Assessment data revealed that individuals with FXS demonstrated proficiency in interacting with technology.
CONCLUSIONS: Mobile technology is a tool that can be used in FXS to build skills and increase independence rather than simply for recreational purposes. Implications for using mobile technology to enhance healthcare decision making are discussed.

PMID: 30105880 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Service satisfaction and helpfulness ratings, mental health literacy and help seeking barriers of carers of individuals with dual disabilities.”

Service satisfaction and helpfulness ratings, mental health literacy and help seeking barriers of carers of individuals with dual disabilities.

Related Articles

Service satisfaction and helpfulness ratings, mental health literacy and help seeking barriers of carers of individuals with dual disabilities.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2018 Aug 13;:

Authors: Man J, Kangas M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Carer mental health literacy and help seeking are areas that are not well researched in the intellectual disability field. This study aimed to explore the above including service utilization experiences of Australian parents with an offspring with an intellectual disability and a comorbid psychiatric disorder.
METHOD: Forty-one parents took part in an online survey assessing satisfaction and helpfulness ratings of received services. Twenty-six parents also completed items to assess mental health literacy and attitudinal barriers to help seeking.
RESULTS: Parents showed good mental health literacy with depression and with challenging behaviour associated with autism and poorer literacy with mixed presentations. Few attitudinal barriers to help seeking were reported. Parents reported varied helpfulness and satisfaction ratings with disability and mental health services.
CONCLUSIONS: Parents are capable of recognizing the need to seek professional help for their offspring. Implications for service coordination, provision and carer involvement are discussed.

PMID: 30105790 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Social Skills Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Potential Biological Origins and Progress in Developing Therapeutic Agents.”

Social Skills Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Potential Biological Origins and Progress in Developing Therapeutic Agents.

Related Articles

Social Skills Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Potential Biological Origins and Progress in Developing Therapeutic Agents.

CNS Drugs. 2018 Aug 14;:

Authors: Frye RE

Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder is defined by two core symptoms: a deficit in social communication and the presence of repetitive behaviors and/or restricted interests. Currently, there is no US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for these core symptoms. This article reviews the biological origins of the social function deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder and the drug therapies with the potential to treat this deficit. A review of the history of autism demonstrates that a deficit in social interaction has been the defining feature of the concept of autism from its conception. Abnormalities identified in early social skill development and an overview of the pathophysiology abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder are discussed as are the abnormalities in brain circuits associated with the social function deficit. Previous and ongoing clinical trials examining agents that have the potential to improve social deficits associated with autism spectrum disorder are discussed in detail. This discussion reveals that agents such as oxytocin and propranolol are particularly promising and undergoing active investigation, while other agents such as vasopressin agonists and antagonists are being activity investigated but have limited published evidence at this time. In addition, agents such as bumetanide and manipulation of the enteric microbiome using microbiota transfer therapy appear to have promising effects on core autism spectrum disorder symptoms including social function. Other pertinent issues associated with developing treatments in autism spectrum disorder, such as disease heterogeneity, high placebo response rates, trial design, and the most appropriate way of assessing effects on social skills (outcome measures), are also discussed.

PMID: 30105528 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Increased Axonal Bouton Stability during Learning in the Mouse Model of MECP2 Duplication Syndrome.”

Increased Axonal Bouton Stability during Learning in the Mouse Model of MECP2 Duplication Syndrome.

Related Articles

Increased Axonal Bouton Stability during Learning in the Mouse Model of MECP2 Duplication Syndrome.

eNeuro. 2018 May-Jun;5(3):

Authors: Ash RT, Fahey PG, Park J, Zoghbi HY, Smirnakis SM

Abstract
MECP2 duplication syndrome is an X-linked form of syndromic autism caused by genomic duplication of the region encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Mice overexpressing MECP2 demonstrate social impairment, behavioral inflexibility, and altered patterns of learning and memory. Previous work showed abnormally increased stability of dendritic spines formed during motor training in the apical tuft of primary motor cortex (area M1) corticospinal neurons in the MECP2 duplication mouse model. In the current study, we measure the structural plasticity of axonal boutons in layer 5 pyramidal neuron projections to layer 1 of area M1 during motor training. In wild-type littermate control mice, we find that during rotarod training the bouton formation rate changes minimally, if at all, while the bouton elimination rate more than doubles. Notably, the observed upregulation in bouton elimination with training is absent in MECP2 duplication mice. This result provides further evidence of an imbalance between structural stability and plasticity in this form of syndromic autism. Furthermore, the observation that axonal bouton elimination more than doubles with motor training in wild-type animals contrasts with the increase of dendritic spine consolidation observed in corticospinal neurons at the same layer. This dissociation suggests that different area M1 microcircuits may manifest different patterns of structural synaptic plasticity during motor training.

PMID: 30105297 [PubMed – in process]

0 comments on “Paroxysmal Movement Disorder and Epilepsy Caused by a De Novo Truncating Mutation in KAT6A.”

Paroxysmal Movement Disorder and Epilepsy Caused by a De Novo Truncating Mutation in KAT6A.

Related Articles

Paroxysmal Movement Disorder and Epilepsy Caused by a De Novo Truncating Mutation in KAT6A.

J Pediatr Genet. 2018 Sep;7(3):114-116

Authors: Efthymiou S, Salpietro V, Bettencourt C, Houlden H

Abstract
Mutations in KAT6A encoding a histone acetyltransferase involved in chromatin remodeling and in other genes involved in histone acetylation and/or deacetylation have been implicated in broad phenotypes of congenital and developmental abnormalities. However, limited genotype-phenotype correlations are available for some of the most rare or recently reported genetic disorders related to chromatin dysregulation. We hereby report a de novo truncating mutation in KAT6A (c.3338C > G; p.S1113X) in a young male patient with intellectual disability associated with impaired speech and autistic features, who also presented with infantile seizures and a complex movement disorder phenotype with paroxysmal episodes of abnormal startle responses.

PMID: 30105118 [PubMed]

0 comments on “Maturation of GABAergic Transmission in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells Is Sex Dependent and Altered in the Valproate Model of Autism.”

Maturation of GABAergic Transmission in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells Is Sex Dependent and Altered in the Valproate Model of Autism.

Related Articles

Maturation of GABAergic Transmission in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells Is Sex Dependent and Altered in the Valproate Model of Autism.

Front Cell Neurosci. 2018;12:232

Authors: Roux S, Lohof A, Ben-Ari Y, Poulain B, Bossu JL

Abstract
Brain development is accompanied by a shift in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) response from depolarizing-excitatory to hyperpolarizing-inhibitory, due to a reduction of intracellular chloride concentration. This sequence is delayed in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We now report a similar alteration of this shift in the cerebellum, a structure implicated in ASD. Using single GABAA receptor channel recordings in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs), we found two conductance levels (18 and 10 pS), the former being dominant in newborns and the latter in young-adults. This conductance shift and the depolarizing/excitatory to hyperpolarizing/inhibitory GABA shift occurred 4 days later in females than males. Our data support a sex-dependent developmental shift of GABA conductance and chloride gradient, leading to different developmental timing in males and females. Because these developmental sequences are altered in ASD, this study further stresses the importance of developmental timing in pathological neurodevelopment.

PMID: 30104962 [PubMed]

0 comments on “Sexually dimorphic behavior, neuronal activity, and gene expression in Chd8-mutant mice.”

Sexually dimorphic behavior, neuronal activity, and gene expression in Chd8-mutant mice.

Related Articles

Sexually dimorphic behavior, neuronal activity, and gene expression in Chd8-mutant mice.

Nat Neurosci. 2018 Aug 13;:

Authors: Jung H, Park H, Choi Y, Kang H, Lee E, Kweon H, Roh JD, Ellegood J, Choi W, Kang J, Rhim I, Choi SY, Bae M, Kim SG, Lee J, Chung C, Yoo T, Park H, Kim Y, Ha S, Um SM, Mo S, Kwon Y, Mah W, Bae YC, Kim H, Lerch JP, Paik SB, Kim E

Abstract
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are four times more common in males than in females, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We characterized sexually dimorphic changes in mice carrying a heterozygous mutation in Chd8 (Chd8+/N2373K) that was first identified in human CHD8 (Asn2373LysfsX2), a strong ASD-risk gene that encodes a chromatin remodeler. Notably, although male mutant mice displayed a range of abnormal behaviors during pup, juvenile, and adult stages, including enhanced mother-seeking ultrasonic vocalization, enhanced attachment to reunited mothers, and isolation-induced self-grooming, their female counterparts do not. This behavioral divergence was associated with sexually dimorphic changes in neuronal activity, synaptic transmission, and transcriptomic profiles. Specifically, female mice displayed suppressed baseline neuronal excitation, enhanced inhibitory synaptic transmission and neuronal firing, and increased expression of genes associated with extracellular vesicles and the extracellular matrix. Our results suggest that a human CHD8 mutation leads to sexually dimorphic changes ranging from transcription to behavior in mice.

PMID: 30104731 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Sex-specific impact of prenatal androgens on social brain default mode subsystems.”

Sex-specific impact of prenatal androgens on social brain default mode subsystems.

Related Articles

Sex-specific impact of prenatal androgens on social brain default mode subsystems.

Mol Psychiatry. 2018 Aug 13;:

Authors: Lombardo MV, Auyeung B, Pramparo T, Quartier A, Courraud J, Holt RJ, Waldman J, Ruigrok ANV, Mooney N, Bethlehem RAI, Lai MC, Kundu P, Bullmore ET, Mandel JL, Piton A, Baron-Cohen S

Abstract
Early-onset neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g., autism) affect males more frequently than females. Androgens may play a role in this male-bias by sex-differentially impacting early prenatal brain development, particularly neural circuits that later develop specialized roles in social cognition. Here, we find that increasing prenatal testosterone in humans is associated with later reduction of functional connectivity between social brain default mode (DMN) subsystems in adolescent males, but has no effect in females. Since testosterone can work directly via the androgen receptor (AR) or indirectly via the estrogen receptor through aromatase conversion to estradiol, we further examined how a potent non-aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), acts via the AR to influence gene expression in human neural stem cells (hNSC)-particularly for genes of high-relevance for DMN circuitry. DHT dysregulates a number of genes enriched for syndromic causes of autism and intellectual disability and for genes that in later development are expressed in anatomical patterns that highly correspond to the cortical midline DMN subsystem. DMN-related and DHT-affected genes (e.g., MEF2C) are involved in a number of synaptic processes, many of which impact excitation-inhibition balance. Androgens have male-specific prenatal influence over social brain circuitry in humans and may be relevant towards explaining some component of male-bias in early-onset neurodevelopmental conditions.

PMID: 30104728 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “PPARγ agonists: potential treatment for autism spectrum disorder by inhibiting the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway.”

PPARγ agonists: potential treatment for autism spectrum disorder by inhibiting the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway.

Related Articles

PPARγ agonists: potential treatment for autism spectrum disorder by inhibiting the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway.

Mol Psychiatry. 2018 Aug 13;:

Authors: Vallée A, Vallée JN, Lecarpentier Y

Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by a deficit in social interactions and communication with repetitive and restrictive behavior. No curative treatments are available for ASD. Pharmacological treatments do not address the core ASD behaviors, but target comorbid symptoms. Dysregulation of the core neurodevelopmental pathways is associated with the clinical presentation of ASD, and the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway is one of the major pathways involved. The canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway participates in the development of the central nervous system, and its dysregulation involves developmental cognitive disorders. In numerous tissues, the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) act in an opposed manner. In ASD, the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway is increased while PPARγ seems to be decreased. PPARγ agonists present a beneficial effect in treatment for ASD children through their anti-inflammatory role. Moreover, they induce the inhibition of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway in several pathophysiological states. We focus this review on the hypothesis of an opposed interplay between PPARγ and the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway in ASD and the potential role of PPARγ agonists as treatment for ASD.

PMID: 30104725 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Apparent bias toward long gene misregulation in MeCP2 syndromes disappears after controlling for baseline variations.”

Apparent bias toward long gene misregulation in MeCP2 syndromes disappears after controlling for baseline variations.

Related Articles

Apparent bias toward long gene misregulation in MeCP2 syndromes disappears after controlling for baseline variations.

Nat Commun. 2018 Aug 13;9(1):3225

Authors: Raman AT, Pohodich AE, Wan YW, Yalamanchili HK, Lowry WE, Zoghbi HY, Liu Z

Abstract
Recent studies have suggested that genes longer than 100 kb are more likely to be misregulated in neurological diseases associated with synaptic dysfunction, such as autism and Rett syndrome. These length-dependent transcriptional changes are modest in MeCP2-mutant samples, but, given the low sensitivity of high-throughput transcriptome profiling technology, here we re-evaluate the statistical significance of these results. We find that the apparent length-dependent trends previously observed in MeCP2 microarray and RNA-sequencing datasets disappear after estimating baseline variability from randomized control samples. This is particularly true for genes with low fold changes. We find no bias with NanoString technology, so this long gene bias seems to be particular to polymerase chain reaction amplification-based platforms. In contrast, authentic long gene effects, such as those caused by topoisomerase inhibition, can be detected even after adjustment for baseline variability. We conclude that accurate characterization of length-dependent (or other) trends requires establishing a baseline from randomized control samples.

PMID: 30104565 [PubMed – in process]

0 comments on “Sex: A Significant Risk Factor for Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders.”

Sex: A Significant Risk Factor for Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Related Articles

Sex: A Significant Risk Factor for Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Brain Sci. 2018 Aug 13;8(8):

Authors: Pinares-Garcia P, Stratikopoulos M, Zagato A, Loke H, Lee J

Abstract
Males and females sometimes significantly differ in their propensity to develop neurological disorders. Females suffer more from mood disorders such as depression and anxiety, whereas males are more susceptible to deficits in the dopamine system including Parkinson’s disease (PD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism. Despite this, biological sex is rarely considered when making treatment decisions in neurological disorders. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) underlying sex differences in the healthy and diseased brain will help to devise diagnostic and therapeutic strategies optimal for each sex. Thus, the aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence on sex differences in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders regarding prevalence, progression, symptoms and response to therapy. We also discuss the sex-related factors such as gonadal sex hormones and sex chromosome genes and how these might help to explain some of the clinically observed sex differences in these disorders. In particular, we highlight the emerging role of the Y-chromosome gene, SRY, in the male brain and its potential role as a male-specific risk factor for disorders such as PD, autism, and ADHD in many individuals.

PMID: 30104506 [PubMed]

0 comments on “Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination and Autism Spectrum Disorder.”

Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Related Articles

Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Pediatrics. 2018 Aug 13;:

Authors: Becerra-Culqui TA, Getahun D, Chiu V, Sy LS, Tseng HF

Abstract
: media-1vid110.1542/5803567555001PEDS-VA_2018-0120Video Abstract BACKGROUND: Increasing vaccination of pregnant women makes it important to assess safety events potentially linked to prenatal vaccination. This study investigates the association between prenatal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in offspring.
METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of mother-child pairs with deliveries January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2014 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals. Maternal Tdap vaccination from pregnancy start to delivery date was obtained from electronic medical records. A diagnosis of ASD was obtained by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth and Tenth Revision codes. Children were managed from birth to first ASD diagnosis, end of membership, or end of follow-up (June 30, 2017). Cox proportional hazards models estimated the unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between maternal Tdap vaccination and ASD, with inverse probability of treatment weighting to adjust for confounding.
RESULTS: Women vaccinated were more likely to be Asian American or Pacific Islander, be nulliparous, have a higher education, receive influenza vaccination prenatally, and give birth at term. ASD was diagnosed in 1341 (1.6%) children, and the incidence rate was 3.78 per 1000 person years in the Tdap exposed and 4.05 per 1000 person years in the unexposed group (HR: 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.88-1.09). The inverse probability of treatment weighting-adjusted analyses revealed that prenatal Tdap vaccination was not associated with an increased ASD risk (HR: 0.85, 95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.95).
CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal Tdap vaccination was not associated with an increased ASD risk. We support recommendations to vaccinate pregnant women to protect infants, who are at highest risk of death after pertussis infection.

PMID: 30104424 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “A transient developmental window of fast-spiking interneuron dysfunction in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome.”

A transient developmental window of fast-spiking interneuron dysfunction in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome.

Related Articles

A transient developmental window of fast-spiking interneuron dysfunction in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome.

J Neurosci. 2018 Aug 13;:

Authors: Favero M, Sotuyo NP, Lopez E, Kearney JA, Goldberg EM

Abstract
Dravet syndrome is a severe childhood-onset epilepsy largely due to heterozygous loss-of-function mutation of the gene SCN1A, which encodes the type 1 neuronal voltage gated sodium (Na+) channel α subunit Nav1.1. Prior studies in mouse models of Dravet syndrome (Scn1a+/- mice) indicate that, in cerebral cortex, Nav1.1 is predominantly expressed in GABAergic interneurons, in particular in parvalbumin-positive fast-spiking basket cells (PVINs). This has led to a model of Dravet syndrome pathogenesis in which Nav1.1 mutation leads to preferential dysfunction of interneurons, decreased synaptic inhibition, hyperexcitability, and epilepsy. However, such studies have been implemented at early developmental time points. Here, we perform electrophysiological recordings in acute brain slices prepared from male and female Scn1a+/- mice as well as age-matched wild-type littermate controls and find that, later in developmental, excitability of PVINs has normalized. Analysis of action potential waveforms indirectly suggests a reorganization of axonal Na+ channels in PVINs from Scn1a+/- mice, a finding supported by immunohistochemical data showing elongation of the axon initial segment. Our results imply that transient impairment of action potential generation by PVINs may contribute to the initial appearance of epilepsy, but is not the mechanism of ongoing, chronic epilepsy, in Dravet syndrome.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTDravet syndrome is characterized by normal early development, temperature-sensitive seizures in infancy, progression to treatment-resistant epilepsy, developmental delay, autism, and sudden unexplained death, due to mutation in SCN1A encoding the Na+ channel subunit Nav1.1. Prior work has revealed a preferential impact of Nav1.1 loss on the function of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. However, such data derives exclusively from recordings of neurons in young Scn1a+/- mice. Here, we show that impaired action potential generation observed in parvalbumin-positive fast-spiking interneurons (PVINs) in Scn1a+/- mice during early development has normalized by P35. This work suggests that a transient impairment of PVINs contributes to epilepsy onset, but is not the mechanism of ongoing, chronic epilepsy, in Dravet syndrome.

PMID: 30104343 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Altered Gamma Oscillations during Motor Control in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.”

Altered Gamma Oscillations during Motor Control in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Related Articles

Altered Gamma Oscillations during Motor Control in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Neurosci. 2018 Aug 13;:

Authors: An KM, Ikeda T, Yoshimura Y, Hasegawa C, Saito DN, Kumazaki H, Hirosawa T, Minabe Y, Kikuchi M

Abstract
Autism is hypothesized to result in a cortical excitatory and inhibitory imbalance driven by inhibitory interneuron dysfunction, which is associated with the generation of gamma oscillations. On the other hand, impaired motor control has been widely reported in autism. However, no study has focused on the gamma oscillations during motor control in autism. In the present study, we investigated the motor-related gamma oscillations in autism using magnetoencephalography. Magnetoencephalographic signals were recorded from 14 right-handed human children with autism (5 female), aged 5–7 years, and age- and IQ-matched 15 typically developing children during a motor task using their right index finger. Consistent with previous studies, the autism group showed a significantly longer button response time and reduced amplitude of motor-evoked magnetic fields. We observed that the autism group exhibited a low peak frequency of motor-related gamma oscillations from the contralateral primary motor cortex, and these were associated with the severity of autism symptoms. The autism group showed a reduced power of motor-related gamma oscillations in the bilateral primary motor cortex. A linear discriminant analysis using the button response time and gamma oscillations showed a high classification performance (86.2% accuracy). The alterations of the gamma oscillations in autism might reflect the cortical excitatory and inhibitory imbalance. Our findings provide an important clue into the behavioral and neurophysiological alterations in autism and a potential biomarker for autism.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTCurrently, the diagnosis of autism has been based on behavioral assessments, and a crucial issue in the diagnosis of autism is to identify objective and quantifiable clinical biomarkers. A key hypothesis of the neurophysiology of autism is an excitatory and inhibitory imbalance in the brain, which is associated with the generation of gamma oscillations. On the other hand, motor deficits have also been widely reported in autism. This is the first study to demonstrate low motor performance and altered motor-related gamma oscillations in autism, reflecting a brain excitatory and inhibitory imbalance. Using these behavioral and neurophysiological parameters, we classified autism and control group with good accuracy. This work provides important information on behavioral and neurophysiological alterations in patients with autism.

PMID: 30104338 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “The Potential of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Consensus Statement.”

The Potential of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Consensus Statement.

Related Articles

The Potential of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Consensus Statement.

Biol Psychiatry. 2018 Aug 10;:

Authors: Cole EJ, Enticott PG, Oberman LM, Gwynette MF, Casanova MF, Jackson SLJ, Jannati A, McPartland JC, Naples AJ, Puts NAJ, rTMS in ASD Consensus Group

PMID: 30103951 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Prenatal influenza vaccination rescues impairments of social behavior and lamination in a mouse model of autism.”

Prenatal influenza vaccination rescues impairments of social behavior and lamination in a mouse model of autism.

Related Articles

Prenatal influenza vaccination rescues impairments of social behavior and lamination in a mouse model of autism.

J Neuroinflammation. 2018 Aug 13;15(1):228

Authors: Wu Y, Qi F, Song D, He Z, Zuo Z, Yang Y, Liu Q, Hu S, Wang X, Zheng X, Yang J, Yuan Q, Zou J, Guo K, Yao Z

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Prenatal infection is a substantial risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism in offspring. We have previously reported that influenza vaccination (VAC) during early pregnancy contributes to neurogenesis and behavioral function in offspring.
RESULTS: Here, we probe the efficacy of VAC pretreatment on autism-like behaviors in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model. We show that VAC improves abnormal fetal brain cytoarchitecture and lamination, an effect associated with promotion of intermediate progenitor cell differentiation in MIA fetal brain. These beneficial effects are sufficient to prevent social deficits in adult MIA offspring. Furthermore, whole-genome analysis suggests a strong interaction between Ikzf1 (IKAROS family zinc-finger 1) and neuronal differentiation. Intriguingly, VAC rescues excessive microglial Ikzf1 expression and attenuates microglial inflammatory responses in the MIA fetal brain.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study implies that a preprocessed influenza vaccination prevents maternal bacterial infection from causing neocortical lamination impairments and autism-related behaviors in offspring.

PMID: 30103815 [PubMed – in process]

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research