0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons”

New York Twin Brothers With Autism Love Running Marathons

Autism doesn’t slow these identical twins down, especially when it comes to running. 

Alex and Jamie, 28, of Great Neck, New York, love nothing more than running marathons. 

After they realized their passion at 15 years old, their parents Robyn and Allen Schneider have always encouraged the hobby. 

Alex grew to be a competitive runner, training six days a week and completing half-marathons at an average of an hour and 16 minutes – an incredibly impressive time even for able-bodied competitive runners.

“It was just beyond words,” their mom Robyn told InsideEdition.com. “We were so excited, so thrilled for him, and he has no idea how great he is.”

For Jamie, the pastime is more recreational. He trains three days a week and prefers leisurely runs with his parents.

“He’s much more social,” his mom said. “He likes to stop and take a break, take a water stop, walk a little. He listens to an iPod when he’s running and he likes running behind girls with ponytails. I think [he likes] the ‘swish, swish’ motion of the ponytail.”

But being a parent to the identical twins hasn’t always been so easy, Robyn said.

“Growing up, one was a little bit more difficult than the other,” Robyn explained. “It was kind of like a chain reaction and they had a lot of behaviors and it was really hard to communicate because neither of them are verbal.”

She said they were diagnosed at 21 months, and they continue to need help with day-to-day tasks, like remembering to eat, putting on a jacket in cold weather and crossing the street.

“Autism is a lifelong disability,” she said. “They’re still not communicative, so it’s even difficult today.”

While Alex and Jamie grew up learning to swim, doing karate and riding horseback, they have always seemed ambivalent to the hobbies. But everything changed when they started running.

“[They were] smiling a lot, jumping up and down, [they] just seemed really at peace and just a different kind of happiness,” Robyn explained. “They seem to be eager to go when we tell them we’re going running. We just saw something different in them – something light up. It was really wonderful for us because we had never seen that before.”

Since then, becoming strong runners has been a family effort.

Robyn and her husband are in charge of their diets, she explained, and she tries to make sure her sons are eating healthy to stay in shape.

In terms of training, Robyn explained her sons have a different threshold for pain and can’t express themselves when they’re injured.

“Alex was running with his cross-country team in high school with his coach and we didn’t realize it but he had a stress fracture and the only way we knew that was he was running down a hill and he was limping,” she recalled. “It’s a lot of observation for us and just a lot of carefully building up the mileage. And we make sure all their workouts are followed by recovery runs.”

Neither Jamie nor Alex can run alone. Some days they run with a coach, and other days, their parents will run or bike alongside them.

Alex is now preparing to run in the New York City Marathon accompanied by a coach, and Jamie is looking forward to cheering his brother on.

“It’s very heartwarming and there aren’t many things that we can really rejoice about, having two very severe kids with autism,” Robyn explained. “So the whole running experience gives us that opportunity to rejoice and celebrate.”

RELATED STORIES

Stray Dog Runs Half-Marathon and Is Awarded a Medal While in the Pound

Son Surprises Biological Mom at Pittsburgh Half Marathon in Emotional Moment

Man Runs Entire L.A. Marathon Backwards to Raise Money for Epilepsy Research

0 comments on “Are language features and emotional regulation related with maternal depression in autism and language delay?”

Are language features and emotional regulation related with maternal depression in autism and language delay?

Are language features and emotional regulation related with maternal depression in autism and language delay?

Pediatr Int. 2018 Aug 13;:

Authors: Özyurt G, Dinsever C, Tufan AE, Baykara B

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Language and communication is very important in social, emotional and cognitive development of children. Delay in language is usually the first complaint for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental language delays (DLDs). This study evaluated language features and emotional regulation skills of children diagnosed with ASD and DLDs and their relationships with maternal depression levels METHOD: The sample included children aged 24- 54 months diagnosed with ASD (n=31), or with DLDs (n=45) and 52 healthy controls. The Test of Early Language Development (TELD-3) was used to evaluate language profiles and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to examine maternal depression. Children’s emotion regulation skills were evaluated with Emotion Regulation Checklist.
RESULTS: As a result it was found that children with DLDs had significantly higher developmental ages, were linguistically more developed and had better emotion regulation compared to the ASD group. All domains of language in TELD-3 except expressive syntax were more developed in DLD. Maternal BDI scores did not differ significantly between DLDs and ASD. Both of these disorders were not related with maternal depression.
CONCLUSION: In this study; it was found that children with DLDs were less impaired than children with ASDs both in terms of language and emotion regulation areas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 30103292 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “l-Dopa treatment during perinatal development leads to different behavioral alterations in female vs. male juvenile Swiss mice.”

l-Dopa treatment during perinatal development leads to different behavioral alterations in female vs. male juvenile Swiss mice.

l-Dopa treatment during perinatal development leads to different behavioral alterations in female vs. male juvenile Swiss mice.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2018 Aug 10;:

Authors: de Matos LO, de Araujo Lima Reis AL, Guerra LTL, de Oliveira Guarnieri L, Moraes MA, Aquino NSS, Szawka RE, Pereira GS, Souza BR

Abstract
Alterations in dopaminergic signaling and neurodevelopment are associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, and schizophrenia. Imbalances in dopamine levels during prenatal development are associated with behavioral alterations later in life, like hyperactivity and addiction, and it is possible that dopaminergic imbalances may have diverse effects during different neurodevelopmental windows. In this study, we investigate whether an increase in dopamine levels during the perinatal developmental window affects behavior of juvenile male and female Swiss mice. In order to do so, we intraperitoneally administered daily doses of l-Dopa to mice pups beginning from postnatal day 1 (PD1) to PD5, which increased the levels of dopamine and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), in the striatum of the pups. At the age of 4 weeks, we submitted the juvenile males and females to the open field test, elevated plus maze, forced swimming test, and sucrose preference test. We observed that increase of dopamine levels during the perinatal developmental window increased exploratory behavior in juvenile females, but not males. We observed no changes in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. In contrast, we observed that increased dopamine levels during the perinatal period lead to hedonic alterations in juvenile males, but not females. Our results show that dopamine signaling is important for behavioral development and that transient imbalance of dopamine levels causes juvenile behavioral alterations, which are different in males than in females. These data may help in better understanding the spectrum of symptoms associated with different neuropsychiatric disorders.

PMID: 30102946 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Clinical findings in cases with 9q deletion encompassing the 9q21.11q21.32 region.”

Clinical findings in cases with 9q deletion encompassing the 9q21.11q21.32 region.

Clinical findings in cases with 9q deletion encompassing the 9q21.11q21.32 region.

Turk J Pediatr. 2018;60(1):94-98

Authors: Tuğ E, Ergün MA, Perçin EF

Abstract
Tuğ E, Ergün MA, Perçin EF. Clinical findings in cases with 9q deletion encompassing the 9q21.11q21.32 region. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 94-98. We report on a case with developmental delay and dysmorphic craniofacial features, and a novel~15.2 Mb interstitial deletion within 9q21.11q21.32 confirmed with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). A twenty-two month old boy with inability to walk without support, absent speech, and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder was seen in our clinic. His craniofacial examination revealed relative macrocephaly, facial asymmetry, frontal bossing, sparse medial eyebrows, hypertelorism, broad base to nose, smooth philtrum, large mouth, operated cleft lip and wide spaced teeth. The high resolution binding (HRB) chromosome analysis revealed an interstitial deletion 46,XY,del(9)(q21) confirmed by aCGH revealing; 46,XY,der(9)(pter→q21.11::q21.32→qter).arr9q21.11q21.32(71,069,763-86,333,272)X1dn. Genotype-phenotype correlations of sixteen cases with 9q21 deletion having different breakpoints and variable length revealed common characteristic features including severe developmental delay, epilepsy, neuro-behavioural disorders and facial dysmorphism including hypertelorism, smooth philtrum and thin upper lip. The smallest overlapping deleted region in all defined cases to date including our case comprised four genes. Among these deleted genes as in our case, especially RORB is considered to be a strong candidate for neurological phenotype.

PMID: 30102487 [PubMed – in process]

0 comments on “Using antipsychotics for behavioral problems in children.”

Using antipsychotics for behavioral problems in children.

Using antipsychotics for behavioral problems in children.

Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2018 Aug 13;:1-14

Authors: Shafiq S, Pringsheim T

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Antipsychotic use in children has increased over the past two decades. Randomized controlled trials have evaluated the efficacy of antipsychotics in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Areas covered: The authors systematically analyze the results of randomized controlled trials of second and third generation antipsychotics for irritability in ASD and aggressive and disruptive behavior in DBD with or without low IQ and ADHD. The aim of the review is to assist healthcare professionals to optimize therapy in this population. Expert opinion: There is evidence to support the short-term efficacy of risperidone and aripiprazole for irritability in ASD, and short-term efficacy of risperidone for aggressive and disruptive behavior in DBD, although the benefits are closely balanced with an increased risk of metabolic, hormonal and extrapyramidal adverse effects. The use of antipsychotics in children with these disorders should be reserved for those refractory to first and second-line therapies, and in whom there is a persistent and serious risk of harm to self or others. Antipsychotics should be considered a short-term strategy while psychosocial and behavioral therapies are continuously employed.

PMID: 30102079 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Early life influences on child weight outcomes in the Study to Explore Early Development.”

Early life influences on child weight outcomes in the Study to Explore Early Development.

Early life influences on child weight outcomes in the Study to Explore Early Development.

Autism. 2018 Aug 13;:1362361318791545

Authors: Kral TV, Chittams J, Bradley CB, Daniels JL, DiGuiseppi CG, Johnson SL, Pandey J, Pinto-Martin JA, Rahai N, Ramirez A, Schieve LA, Thompson A, Windham G, York W, Young L, Levy SE

Abstract
We examined associations between child body mass index at 2-5 years and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and rapid weight gain during infancy in children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delays, or population controls. The Study to Explore Early Development is a multi-site case-control study of children, aged 2-5 years, classified as autism spectrum disorder ( n = 668), developmental delays ( n = 914), or population controls ( n = 884). Maternal gestational weight gain was compared to the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Rapid weight gain was a change in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 6 months > 0.67 standard deviations. After adjusting for case status, mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity were 2.38 times (95% confidence interval: 1.96-2.90) more likely, and mothers who exceeded gestational weight gain recommendations were 1.48 times (95% confidence interval: 1.17-1.87) more likely, to have an overweight/obese child than other mothers ( P < 0.001). Children with autism spectrum disorder showed the highest frequency of rapid weight gain (44%) and were 3.47 times (95% confidence interval: 1.85-6.51) more likely to be overweight/obese as children with autism spectrum disorder without rapid weight gain ( P < 0.001). Helping mothers achieve a healthy pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain represent important targets for all children. Healthy infant growth patterns carry special importance for children at increased risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis.

PMID: 30102071 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Interoceptive impairments do not lie at the heart of autism or alexithymia.”

Interoceptive impairments do not lie at the heart of autism or alexithymia.

Interoceptive impairments do not lie at the heart of autism or alexithymia.

J Abnorm Psychol. 2018 Aug;127(6):612-622

Authors: Nicholson TM, Williams DM, Grainger C, Christensen JF, Calvo-Merino B, Gaigg SB

Abstract
Quattrocki and Friston (2014) argued that abnormalities in interoception-the process of representing one’s internal physiological states-could lie at the heart of autism, because of the critical role interoception plays in the ontogeny of social-affective processes. This proposal drew criticism from proponents of the alexithymia hypothesis, who argue that social-affective and underlying interoceptive impairments are not a feature of autism per se, but of alexithymia (a condition characterized by difficulties describing and identifying one’s own emotions), which commonly co-occurs with autism. Despite the importance of this debate for our understanding of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and of the role of interoceptive impairments in psychopathology, more generally, direct empirical evidence is scarce and inconsistent. Experiment 1 examined in a sample of 137 neurotypical (NT) individuals the association among autistic traits, alexithymia, and interoceptive accuracy (IA) on a standard heartbeat-tracking measure of IA. In Experiment 2, IA was assessed in 46 adults with ASD (27 of whom had clinically significant alexithymia) and 48 NT adults. Experiment 1 confirmed strong associations between autistic traits and alexithymia, but yielded no evidence to suggest that either was associated with interoceptive difficulties. Similarly, Experiment 2 provided no evidence for interoceptive impairments in autistic adults, irrespective of any co-occurring alexithymia. Bayesian analyses consistently supported the null hypothesis. The observations pose a significant challenge to notions that interoceptive impairments constitute a core feature of either ASD or alexithymia, at least as far as the direct perception of interoceptive signals is concerned. (PsycINFO Database Record

PMID: 30102067 [PubMed – in process]

0 comments on “Predicting reading comprehension in young children with autism spectrum disorder.”

Predicting reading comprehension in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

Predicting reading comprehension in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

Sch Psychol Q. 2018 Aug 13;:

Authors: Knight E, Blacher J, Eisenhower A

Abstract
Relationships between early literacy measures (i.e., curriculum-based measurement) and advanced literacy measures (i.e., reading comprehension) were examined in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Participants in this study were 167 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years (M = 5 years 8 months), who were assessed at 2 time points during 1 school year. Results indicated that, compared to other measures of early literacy skills, curriculum-based measurements (CBMs) accurately assessed skills in students with ASD. Furthermore, early literacy skills predicted reading comprehension approximately six months later in this sample. The reading development of children with ASD compared to typically developing children appears to be similar in the predictive capacity of decoding skills on later reading skills and dissimilar in the variability and range of skills. CBM tools can provide educators with information about the early reading skills of children with ASD to help address reading and language difficulties seen in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record

PMID: 30102056 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US youth with autism spectrum disorder.”

Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US youth with autism spectrum disorder.

Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US youth with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism. 2018 Aug 13;:1362361318791817

Authors: Healy S, Aigner CJ, Haegele JA

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine current overweight and obesity prevalence rates among US youth (aged 10-17 years) with and without autism spectrum disorder, based on the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health. Analyses of weight status, derived from parent-reported height and weight measures, were conducted for a weighted sample of 875,963 youth with autism spectrum disorder and 31,913,657 typically developing youth. Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, income, and sex, youth with autism spectrum disorder had significantly higher odds of overweight (odds ratio = 1.48, p = 0.04) and obesity (odds ratio = 1.49, p = 0.02) compared to typically developing youth. Among youth with autism spectrum disorder, 19.4% were overweight and 23.05% were obese. Among typically developing youth, 14.9% were overweight and 15.91% were obese. Higher odds of obesity were reported for youth with severe autism spectrum disorder (odds ratio = 3.35, p < 0.01), compared to those with mild autism spectrum disorder.

PMID: 30101597 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Object personification in autism: This paper will be very sad if you don’t read it.”

Object personification in autism: This paper will be very sad if you don’t read it.

Object personification in autism: This paper will be very sad if you don’t read it.

Autism. 2018 Aug 11;:1362361318793408

Authors: White RC, Remington A

Abstract
Object personification is the attribution of human characteristics to non-human agents. In online forums, autistic individuals commonly report experiencing this phenomenon. Given that approximately half of all autistic individuals experience difficulties identifying their own emotions, the suggestion that object personification may be a feature of autism seems almost paradoxical. Why would a person experience sympathy for objects, when they struggle to understand and verbalise the emotions of other people as well as their own? An online survey was used to assess tendency for personification in 87 autistic and 263 non-autistic adults. Together, our results indicate that object personification occurs commonly among autistic individuals, and perhaps more often (and later in life) than in the general population. Given that in many cases, autistic people report their personification experiences as distressing, it is important to consider the reasons for the increased personification and identify structures for support.

PMID: 30101594 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Comparing differences in support needs as perceived by parents of adult offspring with down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and cerebral palsy.”

Comparing differences in support needs as perceived by parents of adult offspring with down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and cerebral palsy.

Related Articles

Comparing differences in support needs as perceived by parents of adult offspring with down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and cerebral palsy.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2018 Aug 12;:

Authors: Lee CE, Burke MM, Arnold CK, Owen A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Parents often face many barriers when taking care of their offspring with disabilities. In childhood, support needs vary with families of children with Down syndrome often reporting less caregiving challenges. However, it is unclear whether support needs vary in adulthood. This study compared parents of adults with Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebral palsy (CP) regarding support needs of their offspring with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and their families.
METHOD: Data were collected via a national survey in the United States with 189 parents of adults with IDD.
RESULTS: Across the quantitative and qualitative analyses, parents of adults with DS (versus CP and ASD) reported significantly greater recreational, natural supports, more formal services and less future planning barriers.
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the DS advantage may persist in adulthood regarding support needs. More research is needed to understand different types of support needs.

PMID: 30101573 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “The other side of the coin: hypersociability.”

The other side of the coin: hypersociability.

Related Articles

The other side of the coin: hypersociability.

Genes Brain Behav. 2018 Aug 13;:e12512

Authors: Toth M

Abstract
Affiliative social motivation and behavior, i.e. sociability that includes attachment, prosocial behavior (sharing, caring, and helping), and empathy (the ability to understand and share the feelings of others), has high variability in the human population, with a portion of people outside of the normal range. While psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders are typically associated with a deficit in social behavior, the opposite trait of hypersociability and indiscriminate friendliness are exhibited by individual with specific neurodevelopmental disorders and following early adverse care. Here we discuss both genetic and environmental factors that cause or increase the risk for developing pathological hypersociability from human to rodent models.

PMID: 30101538 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Autism spectrum disorder symptoms from ages 2 to 19 years: Implications for diagnosing adolescents and young adults.”

Autism spectrum disorder symptoms from ages 2 to 19 years: Implications for diagnosing adolescents and young adults.

Related Articles

Autism spectrum disorder symptoms from ages 2 to 19 years: Implications for diagnosing adolescents and young adults.

Autism Res. 2018 Aug 12;:

Authors: Bal VH, Kim SH, Fok M, Lord C

Abstract
This study explored change in social-communicative symptoms in 140 individuals with childhood autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses. Trajectories of caregiver-reported social-communicative symptoms were examined for three groups (verbal, delayed speech, minimally verbal) from ages 2 to 19 years. Groups showed comparable levels of social-communicative impairment at 2 years and significant decreases in overall symptom levels across the 17-year period (P < .001). Across three subdomains, main effects of time and language (P < .001) reflected patterns of overall improvement, although children with more impaired language tended to have more caregiver-reported symptoms relative to verbal peers. A significant time-by-language interaction (P < .001) reflected that trajectories of socioemotional reciprocity symptoms differed according to patterns of language development. In contrast, improvements in the nonverbal communication domain were seen across language groups, whereas deficits in the development and maintenance of relationships improved for only verbal children. Verbal adults showed significant reductions in the prevalence of kseveral symptoms exhibited during childhood. Improvements suggest that symptoms indicative of ASD in young children may no longer be diagnostic markers in adolescents and adults. Relative stability of several items suggests that impaired facial expression may be a core ASD symptom that warrants more systematic study across the lifespan. Research investigating the manifestation of ASD in older individuals is needed to foster development of appropriate assessment tools and interventions. Differential relationships to developmental factors within the broader social-communication domain underscores a need to focus on more narrowly defined symptom constructs when exploring links between pathophysiology and observable phenotypes.
LAY SUMMARY: In a sample of 140 participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed from 2 to 19 years old, this study found that overall social-communicative symptoms improve across childhood and adolescence. However, timing and amount of change varied for different symptom categories and participants with different language abilities. Findings suggest that some older adolescents and adults with ASD may not exhibit the same difficulties observed in young children with ASD. More research is needed to better understand the strengths and needs of young adults with ASD.

PMID: 30101492 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “The Way Forward for Mechanism-Based Therapeutics in Genetically Defined Neurodevelopmental Disorders.”

The Way Forward for Mechanism-Based Therapeutics in Genetically Defined Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Related Articles

The Way Forward for Mechanism-Based Therapeutics in Genetically Defined Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Aug 12;:

Authors: Modi ME, Sahin M

Abstract
Rare genetically defined neurodevelopmental disorders with increased risk of autism have recently become an entry point for autism-related drug discovery. Through exploration of downstream effects of the pathological mutations, specific mechanistic pathways have been identified as dysregulated. The identification of shared mechanisms across forms of autism opens the door for the development of novel “mechanism-based therapeutics.” However, confidence in the therapeutic mechanism does not diminish the need for well-designed clinical trials.

PMID: 30101418 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Parent Training for Feeding Problems in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Initial Randomized Trial.”

Parent Training for Feeding Problems in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Initial Randomized Trial.

Related Articles

Parent Training for Feeding Problems in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Initial Randomized Trial.

J Pediatr Psychol. 2018 Aug 07;:

Authors: Johnson CR, Brown K, Hyman SL, Brooks MM, Aponte C, Levato L, Schmidt B, Evans V, Huo Z, Bendixen R, Eng H, Sax T, Smith T

Abstract
Objective: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have feeding and mealtime problems. To address these, we conducted a pilot randomized trial of a new 11-session, individually delivered parent training program that integrated behavioral strategies and nutritional guidance (PT-F).
Methods: Forty-two young children (age: 2 to 7-11 years) with ASD and feeding problems were assigned to 11 sessions of PT-F intervention over 20 weeks or a waitlist control. Outcomes included attendance, parent satisfaction, therapist fidelity, and preliminary assessments of child and parent outcomes.
Results: Of the 21 PT-F families, attendance was high (85%) as was parent satisfaction (94% would recommend to others). Treatment fidelity was also high (97%-therapist integrity; 94%-parent adherence). Compared with waitlist, children whose parents participated in PT-F showed significantly greater reductions on the two parent-completed primary outcomes (Brief Autism Mealtime Behavior Inventory-Revised; Twald = -2.79; p = .003; About Your Child’s Eating; Twald = -3.58; p = .001). On the independent evaluator-completed secondary eating outcome, the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement, 48.8% of the participants in PT-F were rated as “responders” compared with 0% in waitlist (p = .006). General child disruptive behavior outcomes decreased more in PT-F but not significantly. Parent outcomes of caregiver stress showed nonsignificant trends favoring PT-F with moderate to small effect sizes.
Conclusions: This trial provides evidence for feasibility, satisfaction, and fidelity of implementation of PT-F for feeding problems in young children with ASD. Feeding outcomes also appeared favorable and lends support for conducting a larger efficacy trial.

PMID: 30101320 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Early childhood antibiotics use and autism spectrum disorders: a population-based cohort study.”

Early childhood antibiotics use and autism spectrum disorders: a population-based cohort study.

Related Articles

Early childhood antibiotics use and autism spectrum disorders: a population-based cohort study.

Int J Epidemiol. 2018 Aug 07;:

Authors: Hamad AF, Alessi-Severini S, Mahmud SM, Brownell M, Kuo IF

Abstract
Background: Changes in microbiota composition as a result of antibiotics use in early life has been proposed as a possible contributor in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We aimed to examine the association between early life antibiotic exposure and risk of ASD.
Methods: This was a population-based cohort study which included all live births in Manitoba, Canada, between 1 April 1998 and 31 March 2016. We used administrative health data from the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository. Exposure was defined as having filled one or more antibiotic prescription during the first year of life. The main outcome was ASD diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the risk of developing ASD in the overall population and in a sibling cohort.
Results: Of all subjects in the cohort (n = 214 834), 94 024 (43.8%) filled an antibiotic prescription during the first year of life. During follow-up, 2965 children received an ASD diagnosis. Compared with children who did not use antibiotics during the first year of life, those who received antibiotics had a reduced risk of ASD [adjusted hazardz ratio (HR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.99). Number of treatment courses and cumulative duration of antibiotic exposure were not associated with ASD. In the sibling-controlled analysis, early life antibiotic exposure was not associated with ASD (adjusted HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.23).
Conclusions: Our findings suggested no clinically significant association between early life antibiotics exposure and risk of autism spectrum disorders, and should provide reassurance to concerned prescribers and parents.

PMID: 30101312 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Assessing Autism Spectrum Disorder in People with Sensory Impairments Combined with Intellectual Disabilities.”

Assessing Autism Spectrum Disorder in People with Sensory Impairments Combined with Intellectual Disabilities.

Related Articles

Assessing Autism Spectrum Disorder in People with Sensory Impairments Combined with Intellectual Disabilities.

J Dev Phys Disabil. 2018;30(4):471-487

Authors: de Vaan G, Vervloed MPJ, Peters-Scheffer NC, van Gent T, Knoors H, Verhoeven L

Abstract
People with sensory impairments combined with intellectual disabilities show behaviours that are similar to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The instrument Observation of Autism in people with Sensory and Intellectual Disabilities (OASID) was developed to diagnose ASD in this target group. The current study focuses on the psychometric properties of OASID. Sixty individuals with intellectual disabilities in combination with visual impairments and/or deafblindness participated in this study. The OASID assessment was administered and rated by three independent observers. By means of expert consensus cut-off scores for OASID were created. To determine the concurrent validity OASID was compared with the Pervasive Developmental Disorder for People with Mental Retardation (PDD-MRS) and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale second edition (CARS-2). The intra-rater reliability, the inter-rater reliability, internal consistency and concurrent validity of OASID were good to excellent. Cut-off scores were established based on criteria from the DSM-5. OASID was able to differentiate between four severity levels of ASD.

PMID: 30100694 [PubMed]

0 comments on “Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Impact of Stressful and Traumatic Life Events and Implications for Clinical Practice.”

Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Impact of Stressful and Traumatic Life Events and Implications for Clinical Practice.

Related Articles

Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Impact of Stressful and Traumatic Life Events and Implications for Clinical Practice.

Clin Soc Work J. 2018;46(3):210-219

Authors: Fuld S

Abstract
Research findings suggest that behavioral interventions are effective in improving educational outcomes and fostering skill development in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, high rates of comorbidity between ASD and other psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety, indicate that standard behavioral approaches are not adequately addressing issues related to mental health in this population. Research emerging since the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) is advancing our understanding of the nature of childhood stress and trauma in people with ASD and its subsequent impact on mental health and wellbeing. Mounting evidence for stress and trauma as a risk factor for comorbidity and the worsening of core ASD symptoms may intimate a shift in the way clinical social workers and other clinical practitioners conceptualize and approach work with this population to include trauma-focused assessment strategies and clinical interventions. Future directions for research to better understand the nature of childhood stress and trauma and improve mental health in this population are also discussed.

PMID: 30100640 [PubMed]

0 comments on “Emotion-Focused Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Conceptualization Model for Trauma-Related Experiences.”

Emotion-Focused Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Conceptualization Model for Trauma-Related Experiences.

Related Articles

Emotion-Focused Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Conceptualization Model for Trauma-Related Experiences.

J Contemp Psychother. 2018;48(3):133-143

Authors: Robinson A

Abstract
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report painful experiences through emotional misunderstandings with typically developing peers. There are limited intervention methodologies for ASD on the impact of emotional injuries and how to work with resulting trauma. This paper presents a rational-empirical model of trauma-related experiences with the first presentation of a new case conceptualization model for emotion-focused therapy for ASD. It describes the transformation of problematic emotion schemes through a sequence of emotional processing steps illustrated with a case example. These steps include: overcoming differentiation of core painful feelings (such as loneliness, shame, and fear); autobiographical memory recall of distanced trauma, using a novel method of video Interpersonal Process Recall; and articulation of the unmet needs contained in core painful feelings. This is followed by the expression of an emotional response to those feelings/needs; typically, self-soothing, protective anger and compassion responses offered interpersonally by group members. These emerging adaptive emotions facilitate mentalization of self and other that strengthens intrapersonal and interpersonal agency. This rational-empirical case conceptualization acts as a hypothesis for testing in subsequent trials.

PMID: 30100621 [PubMed]

0 comments on “Heparan Sulfate Organizes Neuronal Synapses through Neurexin Partnerships.”

Heparan Sulfate Organizes Neuronal Synapses through Neurexin Partnerships.

Related Articles

Heparan Sulfate Organizes Neuronal Synapses through Neurexin Partnerships.

Cell. 2018 Aug 02;:

Authors: Zhang P, Lu H, Peixoto RT, Pines MK, Ge Y, Oku S, Siddiqui TJ, Xie Y, Wu W, Archer-Hartmann S, Yoshida K, Tanaka KF, Aricescu AR, Azadi P, Gordon MD, Sabatini BL, Wong ROL, Craig AM

Abstract
Synapses are fundamental units of communication in the brain. The prototypical synapse-organizing complex neurexin-neuroligin mediates synapse development and function and is central to a shared genetic risk pathway in autism and schizophrenia. Neurexin’s role in synapse development is thought to be mediated purely by its protein domains, but we reveal a requirement for a rare glycan modification. Mice lacking heparan sulfate (HS) on neurexin-1 show reduced survival, as well as structural and functional deficits at central synapses. HS directly binds postsynaptic partners neuroligins and LRRTMs, revealing a dual binding mode involving intrinsic glycan and protein domains for canonical synapse-organizing complexes. Neurexin HS chains also bind novel ligands, potentially expanding the neurexin interactome to hundreds of HS-binding proteins. Because HS structure is heterogeneous, our findings indicate an additional dimension to neurexin diversity, provide a molecular basis for fine-tuning synaptic function, and open therapeutic directions targeting glycan-binding motifs critical for brain development.

PMID: 30100184 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “A Comparison Between Two Screening Approaches for ASD Among Toddlers in Israel.”

A Comparison Between Two Screening Approaches for ASD Among Toddlers in Israel.

Related Articles

A Comparison Between Two Screening Approaches for ASD Among Toddlers in Israel.

J Autism Dev Disord. 2018 Aug 11;:

Authors: Kerub O, Haas EJ, Meiri G, Davidovitch N, Menashe I

Abstract
Systematic screening of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can improve early diagnosis of ASD. We compared the efficacy of two ASD screening methods, the Global Developmental Screening (GDS), and the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers-Revised, with Follow-Up (M-CHAT/F) in 1591 toddlers of ages 18-36 months from 35 government-funded clinics in south Israel. The M-CHAT/F performed better than the GDS in detecting toddlers with ASD (sensitivity: 70.0% vs. 50.0%, and specificity: 98.2% vs. 96.6% respectively). Both methods had an equivalent performance in detecting other forms of developmental delays (sensitivity = 63%; and specificity ~ 98%). In addition, remarkable inter-nurse variation was observed in the GDS referral decisions. Thus, employment of the M-CHAT/F in the Israeli health system may improve early detection of ASD among toddlers.

PMID: 30099656 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Making Sense of… the Microbiome in Psychiatry.”

Making Sense of… the Microbiome in Psychiatry.

Related Articles

Making Sense of… the Microbiome in Psychiatry.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2018 Aug 07;:

Authors: Bastiaanssen TFS, Cowan CSM, Claesson MJ, Dinan TG, Cryan JF

Abstract
Microorganisms can be found almost anywhere, including in and on the human body. The collection of microorganisms associated with a certain location is called a microbiota with its collective genetic material referred to as the microbiome. The largest population of microorganisms on the human body resides in the gastrointestinal tract thus it is not surprising that most investigated human microbiome is the human gut microbiome. On average, the gut hosts microbes from more than 60 genera and contains more cells than the human body. The human gut microbiome has been shown to influence many aspects of host health including more recently the brain.Several modes of interaction between the gut and the brain have been discovered, including via the synthesis of metabolites and neurotransmitters, activation of the vagus nerve and activation of the immune system. A growing body of work is implicating the microbiome in a variety of psychological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders. These include mood and anxiety disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia, and even neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. Moreover, it is probable that most psychotropic medications have an impact on the microbiome.Here, an overview will be provided for the bidirectional role of the microbiome in brain health, age-associated cognitive decline, neurological and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, a primer on the common microbiological and bioinformatics techniques used to interrogate the microbiome will be provided. This review is meant to equip the reader with a primer to this exciting research area which is permeating all areas of biological psychiatry research.

PMID: 30099552 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Live Birth Bias and Observed Associations between Air Pollution and Autism.”

Live Birth Bias and Observed Associations between Air Pollution and Autism.

Related Articles

Live Birth Bias and Observed Associations between Air Pollution and Autism.

Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Aug 07;:

Authors: Raz R, Kioumourtzoglou MA, Weisskopf MG

Abstract
A recent analysis found that exposure to air pollution in specific pregnancy weeks is negatively associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when mutually adjusted for postnatal air pollution exposure. In this commentary, we describe two possible selection bias processes that may lead to such results, both related to live birth bias, i.e. the inevitable restriction of the analyzed sample to live births. The first mechanism is described using a directed acyclic graph and relates to the chance of live birth being a common consequence of both exposure to air pollution and another risk factor of ASD. The second mechanism involves preferential depletion of fetuses susceptible to ASD in the higher air pollution exposure group. We further discuss the assumptions underlying these processes and their causal structures, their plausibility, and other studies where similar phenomenon may have occurred.

PMID: 30099488 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Comparing fully automated state-of-the-art cerebellum parcellation from magnetic resonance images.”

Comparing fully automated state-of-the-art cerebellum parcellation from magnetic resonance images.

Related Articles

Comparing fully automated state-of-the-art cerebellum parcellation from magnetic resonance images.

Neuroimage. 2018 Aug 09;:

Authors: Carass A, Cuzzocreo JL, Han S, Hernandez-Castillo CR, Rasser PE, Ganz M, Beliveau V, Dolz J, Ben Ayed I, Desrosiers C, Thyreau B, Romero JE, Coupé P, Manjón JV, Fonov VS, Collins DL, Ying SH, Onyike CU, Crocetti D, Landman BA, Mostofsky SH, Thompson PM, Prince JL

Abstract
The human cerebellum plays an essential role in motor control, is involved in cognitive function (i.e., attention, working memory, and language), and helps to regulate emotional responses. Quantitative in-vivo assessment of the cerebellum is important in the study of several neurological diseases including cerebellar ataxia, autism, and schizophrenia. Different structural subdivisions of the cerebellum have been shown to correlate with differing pathologies. To further understand these pathologies, it is helpful to automatically parcellate the cerebellum at the highest fidelity possible. In this paper, we coordinated with colleagues around the world to evaluate automated cerebellum parcellation algorithms on two clinical cohorts showing that the cerebellum can be parcellated to a high accuracy by newer methods. We characterize these various methods at four hierarchical levels: coarse (i.e., whole cerebellum and gross structures), lobe, subdivisions of the vermis, and the lobules. Due to the number of labels, the hierarchy of labels, the number of algorithms, and the two cohorts, we have restricted our analyses to the Dice measure of overlap. Under these conditions, machine learning based methods provide a collection of strategies that are efficient and deliver parcellations of a high standard across both cohorts, surpassing previous work in the area. In conjunction with the rank-sum computation, we identified an overall winning method.

PMID: 30099076 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Profiling of orthosteric and allosteric group-III metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands on various G protein-coupled receptors with Tag-lite® assays.”

Profiling of orthosteric and allosteric group-III metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands on various G protein-coupled receptors with Tag-lite® assays.

Related Articles

Profiling of orthosteric and allosteric group-III metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands on various G protein-coupled receptors with Tag-lite® assays.

Neuropharmacology. 2018 Aug 09;:

Authors: Belhocine A, Veglianese P, Hounsou C, Dupuis E, Acher F, Durroux T, Goudet C, Pin JP

Abstract
Group-III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are important synaptic regulators and are potential druggable targets for Parkinson disease, autism and pain. Potential drugs include orthosteric agonists in the glutamate binding extracellular domain and positive allosteric modulators interacting with seven-pass transmembrane domains. Orthosteric agonists are rarely completely specific for an individual group-III mGlu subtype. Furthermore they often fail to pass the blood-brain barrier and they constitutively activate their target receptor. These properties limit the potential therapeutic use of orthosteric agonists. Allosteric modulators are more specific and maintain the biological activity of the targeted receptor. However, they bind in a hydrophobic pocket and this limits their bio-availability and increases possible off-target action. It is therefore important to characterize the action of potential drug targets with a multifaceted and deeply informative assay. Here we aimed at multifaceted deep profiling of the effect of seven different agonists, and seven positive allosteric modulators on 34 different G protein-coupled receptors by a Tag-lite® assay. Our results did not reveal off-target activity of mGlu orthosteric agonists. However, five allosteric modulators had either positive or negative effects on non-cognate G protein-coupled receptors. In conclusion, we demonstrate the power of the Tag-lite® assay for potential drug ligand profiling on G protein-coupled receptors and its potential to identify positive allosteric compounds.

PMID: 30099051 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

0 comments on “Therapeutic Applications of Invasive Neuromodulation in Children and Adolescents.”

Therapeutic Applications of Invasive Neuromodulation in Children and Adolescents.

Related Articles

Therapeutic Applications of Invasive Neuromodulation in Children and Adolescents.

Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2018 Sep;41(3):479-483

Authors: Doruk Camsari D, Kirkovski M, Croarkin PE

Abstract
Although the application of noninvasive brain stimulation methods to children and adolescents has been frequently studied in depression, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, invasive methods such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) have received less attention. DBS and VNS have demonstrated utility in young patients especially for dystonia and epilepsy. VNS has FDA clearance for intractable epilepsy in patients aged 4 years and older. Further measured work with invasive neuromodulation for children and adolescents with debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders could provide new treatment options and expand current knowledge base of neurocircuitry across development.

PMID: 30098659 [PubMed – in process]

0 comments on “Therapeutic Applications of Noninvasive Neuromodulation in Children and Adolescents.”

Therapeutic Applications of Noninvasive Neuromodulation in Children and Adolescents.

Related Articles

Therapeutic Applications of Noninvasive Neuromodulation in Children and Adolescents.

Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2018 Sep;41(3):465-477

Authors: Doruk Camsari D, Kirkovski M, Croarkin PE

Abstract
Recent advances and growing evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of noninvasive neuromodulatory techniques in adults have facilitated the study of neuromodulation applications in children and adolescents. Noninvasive brain stimulation methods such as transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation have been considered in children with depression, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, current clinical applications of neuromodulation techniques in children and adolescents are nascent. There is a great need for developmentally informed, large, double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety of noninvasive brain stimulation in children and adolescents.

PMID: 30098658 [PubMed – in process]